- Hepatitis B is a viral infection that attacks the liver and can cause both acute and chronic disease.
- The virus is transmitted through contact with the blood or other body fluids of an infected person - not through casual contact.
- About 2 billion people worldwide have been infected with the virus and about 350 million live with chronic infection. An estimated 600 000 persons die each year due to the acute or chronic consequences of hepatitis B.
- About 25% of adults who become chronically infected during childhood later die from liver cancer or cirrhosis (scarring of the liver) caused by the chronic infection.
- The hepatitis B virus is 50 to 100 times more infectious than HIV.
- Hepatitis B virus is an important occupational hazard for health workers.
- Hepatitis B is preventable with a safe and effective vaccine.
Hepatitis B is a potentially life-threatening liver infection caused by the hepatitis B virus. It is a major global health problem and the most serious type of viral hepatitis. It can cause chronic liver disease and puts people at high risk of death from cirrhosis of the liver and liver cancer.
Worldwide, an estimated two billion people have been infected with the hepatitis B virus (HBV), and more than 350 million have chronic (long-term) liver infections.
A vaccine against hepatitis B has been available since 1982. Hepatitis B vaccine is 95% effective in preventing HBV infection and its chronic consequences, and is the first vaccine against a major human cancer.
SymptomsHepatitis B virus can cause an acute illness with symptoms that last several weeks, including yellowing of the skin and eyes (jaundice), dark urine, extreme fatigue, nausea, vomiting and abdominal pain. People can take several months to a year to recover from the symptoms. HBV can also cause a chronic liver infection that can later develop into cirrhosis of the liver or liver cancer.
Who is most at risk for chronic disease?The likelihood that an HBV infection will become chronic depends upon the age at which a person becomes infected, with young children who become infected with HBV being the most likely to develop chronic infections. About 90% of infants infected during the first year of life develop chronic infections; 30% to 50% of children infected between one to four years of age develop chronic infections. About 25% of adults who become chronically infected during childhood die from HBV-related liver cancer or cirrhosis.
About 90% of healthy adults who are infected with HBV will recover and be completely rid of the virus within six months.
Where is hepatitis B most common?Hepatitis B is endemic in China and other parts of Asia. Most people in the region become infected with HBV during childhood. In these regions, 8% to 10% of the adult population are chronically infected. Liver cancer caused by HBV is among the first three causes of death from cancer in men, and a major cause of cancer in women. High rates of chronic infections are also found in the Amazon and the southern parts of eastern and central Europe. In the Middle East and Indian sub-continent, an estimated 2% to 5% of the general population is chronically infected. Less than 1% of the population in western Europe and North American is chronically infected.
TransmissionHepatitis B virus is transmitted between people by contact with the blood or other body fluids (i.e. semen and vaginal fluid) of an infected person. Modes of transmission are the same for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), but HBV is 50 to 100 times more infectious Unlike HIV, HBV can survive outside the body for at least 7 days. During that time, the virus can still cause infection if it enters the body of a person who is not infected.
Common modes of transmission in developing countries are:
- perinatal (from mother to baby at birth)
- early childhood infections (inapparent infection through close interpersonal contact with infected household contacts)
- unsafe injections practices
- blood transfusions
- sexual contact
HBV is not spread by contaminated food or water, and cannot be spread casually in the workplace.
The virus incubation period is 90 days on average, but can vary from about 30 to 180 days. HBV may be detected 30 to 60 days after infection and persist for widely variable periods of time.
TreatmentThere is no specific treatment for acute hepatitis B. Care is aimed at maintaining comfort and adequate nutritional balance, including replacement of fluids that are lost from vomiting and diarrhoea.
Chronic hepatitis B can be treated with drugs, including interferon and anti-viral agents, which can help some patients. Treatment can cost thousands of dollars per year and is not available to most patients in developing countries.
Liver cancer is almost always fatal, and often develops in people at an age when they are most productive and have family responsibilities. In developing countries, most people with liver cancer die within months of diagnosis. In higher income countries, surgery and chemotherapy can prolong life for up to a few years in some patients.
Patients with cirrhosis are sometimes given liver transplants, with varying success.
PreventionAll infants should receive the hepatitis B vaccine: this is the mainstay of hepatitis B prevention.
The vaccine can be given as either three or four separate doses, as part of existing routine immunization schedules. In areas where mother-to-infant spread of HBV is common, the first dose of vaccine should be given as soon as possible after birth (i.e. within 24 hours).
The complete vaccine series induces protective antibody levels in more than 95% of infants, children and young adults. After age 40, protection following the primary vaccination series drops below 90%. At 60 years old, protective antibody levels are achieved in only 65 to 75% of those vaccinated. Protection lasts at least 20 years and should be lifelong.
All children and adolescents younger than 18 years old and not previously vaccinated should receive the vaccine. People in high risk groups should also be vaccinated, including:
- persons with high-risk sexual behaviour;
- partners and household contacts of HBV infected persons;
- injecting drug users;
- persons who frequently require blood or blood products;
- recipients of solid organ transplantation;
- those at occupational risk of HBV infection, including health care workers; and
- international travellers to countries with high rates of HBV.
As of December 2006, 164 countries vaccinate infants against hepatitis B during national immunization programmes - a major increase compared with 31 countries in 1992, the year that the World Health Assembly passed a resolution to recommend global vaccination against hepatitis B.
TREATING ALLERGY BY USIND THE DEVICE "DETA-AP"
The instrument work automatically. All programs will be activated one after another. Total duration of the programs is 9 hours. The device should be turned on once a day for 9 hours and placed near you while programs do the work. You can either turn on the device in the morning and hang it on the belt or neck or place it with you in bed before you go to sleep. Try to turn on the instrument at the same time each day. If, after several days, you feel noticeable changes in the mood and light dizziness, know that the reason for this is the intoxication of organism by dead viruses. Do not be frightened, this is normal. Individual ability to remove toxins varies. In this case lower the use of the instrument to once every 2 days. If you already have cirrhosis, you should use an instrument once every 3 days in order to reduce the load of removing toxins and dead viruses on the liver.
We recommend to purchase of rechargeable batteries and to change them in the instrument after every 9 hours of use!
Complete recovery occurs in 85% of the cases. This process can take anywhere from 45 to 180 days. We recommend to take the first tests after 75 days. 45 days is the minimum period of treatment and 30 days is the period for the organism to get rid of the dead viruses. Never stop the use of the instrument after 45 days. Stop ONLY when tests show the absence of the virus in the organism.
The other scenario is if you fall among those 15% of the people who do not achieve full recovery. However, the number of the viruses in your body will be lowered considerably and the biochemical indices of the liver will be improved. This will be confirmed by tests.
Several clinics are at work to achieve a rate of recovery higher than 85%.
1. Complete 180 days of treatment, regardless of the results in the first 1-2 months.
2. Use a condom during sexual intercourse while undergoing treatment.
3. Drink at least 1.5 litres of water a day while undergoing treatment.
4. Take a shower 2 times a day - in the morning and in the evening.